Raised Footprints in the Snow

footprints in the snow raised

This photograph shows a trail of footprints across Antarctica. The person who made them is long gone.

Raised footprints take weeks to form. They are the product of a very specific environment. The snow has to be loose and dry, so that the foot can sink in and compress the snow until it’s hard. Since snowfall and rain can spoil the print, the weather has to be dry. And there has to be constant wind. As someone walks, their feet tamp down the snow until it’s extremely hard in comparison to the snow all around it.

As the wind sweeps across the area, it whisks away loose particles of snow. It takes considerably longer to whisk away the compressed snow of the footprints. Eventually, the wind wears down an entire plain, or side of a hill, except for the hardened tracks in the snow.

http://io9.com/raised-footprints-when-snow-steps-up-473092187

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Ancient Egyptian Prosthetic Toes

Prosthetic Toe Ancient Egyptian

Experts have confirmed two wooden toes as the world’s oldest prosthetics. Discovered in the necropolis of Thebe near present-day Luxor, the so-called Greville Chester toe is from before 600 B.C. It is in the shape of the right big toe and a portion of the right foot. The other, dated between 950 and 710 B.C., was found attached to the right toe of a mummy identified as Tabaketenmut. She was a priest’s daughter who might have lost her toe following gangrene triggered by diabetes.

Both fake toes show significant signs of wear. Moreover, they feature holes for lacings to either attach the toes onto the foot or fasten it onto a sock or sandal.

Researchers created reproductions of the Greville toe and the Tabaketenmut digit, along with replicas of leather ancient Egyptian-style sandals. Two volunteers, both of whom are missing their right big toe, participated in a gait analysis and other tests that were reported in the Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics. For more detail, follow this link:

http://news.discovery.com/history/ancient-egypt/ancient-egypt-wooden-toes-prosthetics-121002.htm

International African American Museum: An Enduring Footprint

Musuems and Galleries African Slave Being Shackled

The mayor of Charleston, South Carolina announced the construction of a $75 million, 42,000-square-foot International African American Museum. Its site commemorates a wharf where tens of thousands of slaves first set foot in the United States.

Plans for the IAAM include –

  • Arrival Walk, a promenade with themes such as “African Paths to the Coast,” “The Eight Week Passage,” and “The Economics of Slave Trade.”
  • Memorial Wall, a testimonial of individuals.
  • Memorial Walk, a memorial those who perished en route.
  • 882 Markers embedded in the ground, a tribute to the 882 slave ships

They expect to break ground in early 2016.

http://fox11online.com/2014/07/15/museum-to-be-built-where-slaves-set-foot-in-us/

http://www.iaamuseum.org/arrival-square/

Photo Source:

http://americancivilwarphotographs.blogspot.ca/2012/06/african-slave-ships.html

The Biomechanics of Your Walking Gait

Gait Stance Phase Feet on Ground

Whether you are conscious of it or not, your feet move your body forward to where you want to go at the pace you want to take. They use the least amount of energy by moving in as straight a line as possible, and adjust their movement to avoid pain if you have a painful foot condition.  They act as shock absorbers for your body. And unless you are hopping, your feet alternate on the ground as you go forward with the lower one propelling the one in mid-air forward.

The alternating of your feet as you walk happens in two phases:

  • The ‘Stance phase’ is when the foot is on the ground. It comprises about 60% of the walking cycle. For part of the stance phase both feet will be on the ground for a period of time.
  • The ‘Swing phase’ occurs when one foot is on the ground and one in the air.

Even during the ‘Stance phase’ a single foot goes through five sub-stages:

  • Heel strike
  • Early flatfoot
  • Late flatfoot
  • Heel rise
  • Toe off.

The defining difference between walking and running is that during running there is a period of time when both feet are off the ground (the ‘Float’ phase).  Also, as running is associated with greater speeds, the forces that go through the foot when it lands can be substantially greater than during walking; it is often 4-5 times body-weight during running and even up to 6-7times body-weight during sprinting.

http://www.footeducation.com/biomechanics-of-walking-gait

Toe-to-Toe with Toddlers: “This Little Piggy”

Toes This Little Piggy

Parents and children love the tactile silliness as they act out the nursery rhyme “This Little Piggy”.

What you’ll need: yourself, your toddler, and his (her) feet!

Sit on the floor or couch with your little one. Point to, touch, or wiggle his big toe while you chant the first line. Move to his second toe for the second line, third toe for the third line, and so on. When you chant the very last line (wee, wee, wee), give him a little tickle, or cover him in silly kisses. Repeat …with the other foot.

Here are the words:

This little piggy went to market

This little piggy stayed home

This little piggy had roast beef

This little piggy had none

And this little piggy went

Wee, wee, wee, all the way home!

You can vary the lyrics and extend language learning to food names or activities, whatever tickles your fancy.

http://www.babycenter.com/0_lets-play-little-piggy-rhymes_10309519.bc

Photo Source:

https://www.google.ca/search?q=toes+this+little+piggy+rhyme&biw=1366&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=7McRVO-9JsmIsQT-_oGwAQ&ved=0CFoQsAQ

Toe Nail Tales: Ultra-Marathon Runners

Toes toenail removal for extreme runners

Some runners go to extreme lengths for a comfortable run; they have their toenails surgically removed.  While beat-up toenails are marks of distinction for the ultra-marathon runners, toenail injuries are serious business.  Blistering under the nails, bruising, ingrown and lost toe nails effect the gait and cause suffering. Pain and the love of the sport are enough to motivate drastic measures.

Permanent toenail removal is not for the faint-hearted. Runners tend not to watch as they undergo the 45-minute procedure. A podiatrist anesthetizes the tip of the toe, applies a tourniquet at the base to limit bleeding, softens the tissue, trims the nail to its root and then pulls the nail out from its bed. A final swipe of carbolic acid prevents regrowth.

Normal activity, even running, can be resumed within days of the removal, although it takes weeks to fully heal. Repeat procedures may be necessary before the toenail stops growing back completely.

 

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/health-and-fitness/health/you-wont-believe-what-extreme-runners-are-doing-to-their-toenails/article9545613/

 

TO-ing and FRO-ing in the MIDDLE EAST

 

 

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“Abbas Takes Defiant Step, and Mideast Talks Falter.”

 

 

 “Bill Clinton sticks his foot in Syrian quagmire.”

 

 

Going out on a limb, Pope Francis met to pray with Israeli and Palestinian leaders. The Rev. Thomas Reese, a veteran Vatican analyst for the National Catholic Reporter noted “In the Middle East, symbolic gestures and incremental steps are important.”

 

 

“Palestinians to walk away from peace talks.”

 

 

“Powers seek ‘first-step’ nuclear deal with Iran in Geneva talks.”

 

 

“Rouhani’s victory in 2013 is the Iranian equivalent to Obama’s victory in 2008: an electorate that voted overwhelmingly for hope and change, understanding that the process will be a marathon, not a sprint,” said Reza Marashi, research director at the National Iranian American Council in Washington.

 

 

[U.S. Secretary of State John] Kerry told reporters he was flying home to Washington to meet with President Obama to reassess the peace negotiations and whether there was a path forward. “There are limits to the amount of time and effort that the United States can spend, if the parties themselves are unwilling to take constructive steps in order to be able to move forward.”

 

 

“Syria chemical arms: ‘Global red line’ crossed – Kerry”

 

 

“For U.N. Chief, a Dance of Diplomacy Is Halted by a Misstep. Ban Ki-moon… choreographed a precise diplomatic sequence on Syria that relied on others to perform their roles equally precisely. The choreography did not go as planned, and Mr. Ban stumbled under the spotlight.”

 

 

Women in Saudi Arabia: Unshackling themselves

 

 

Photo Source: